Clean Water

The diverse ecosystems, working
landscapes, and vibrant communities
that inspire and sustain us depend on
clean water. Learn about pollution
reduction strategies.

Healthy Habitats
Connect Us All

Lakeshores, stream banks, and wetlands are critical to clean
water and biodiversity. Learn about efforts to improve
habitat connectivity in the Basin ecosystem.

We Care for
What We Know

Recreation fosters stewardship of the Basin’s rich
natural and cultural heritage by connecting people
to the landscape while supporting local economies.
Learn about ways to explore the Basin.

Informed Citizens
Make Wiser Choices

Citizens who have an understanding and
appreciation of water resources make informed
choices about actions that might contribute to
pollution. Learn about education programs.

    Water & Environment

    Did You Know?

    The deepest spot in Lake Champlain is 400 ft. (122 meters) deep, located in the area between Charlotte, Vermont and Essex, New York. The average lake depth is 64 ft. (19.5 meters).
    Find out more

    Missisquoi Bay Agreement

    Vermont and Québec share Missisquoi Bay and its 1,200 mi2 (3,100 km2) watershed. In recognition of the deteriorating water quality of the bay, the two governments established a formal commitment to reduce their share of the pollution entering the Bay on August 26, 2002 in Québec City.

    The agreement states that Vermont will have 60% of the responsibility for reducing phosphorus loads to the Bay, and Québec will assume 40% of the responsibility. Accordingly, the target phosphorus load for Vermont will be 58.3 metric tons per year (mt/yr), and the target load for Québec will be 38.9 mt/yr. The target loads set by the agreement were based on the June 2000 report of the Québec-Vermont Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Reduction Task Force, and a subsequent addendum dated October 2001.

    The signing of this agreement fulfills a high priority action of the Lake Champlain Management Plan, Opportunities for Action, implemented by the Lake Champlain Basin Program and its partners. The Missisquoi Bay Agreement was also incorporated into the 2002 Lake Champlain Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plan which established maximum allowable phosphorus loads from each sub-watershed in Vermont and New York (the TMDL is currently under revision by the EPA; VT ANR and VAAFM identified a suite of actions necessary to implement in the Vermont portion of the Missisquoi Bay watershed in order to achieve the target phosphorus loads that Vermont committed to achieving and maintaining. These actions include wastewater treatment plant upgrades, best management practices on farms to reduce nutrient runoff, stabilization of stream banks and stream channels, and better stormwater management and erosion control on developed land and roadways.

    More recent work has focused on identifying critical source areas in the Missisquoi watershed that contribute substantially more phosphorus to adjacent waterways than other areas.

    In support of this agreement, LCBP coordinated a workshop focused on nutrient and cyanobacteria research in Missisquoi Bay on August 13, 2013.  More than 20 researchers and resource managers from Québec and Vermont met at the Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in Swanton, VT, as a follow-up workshop to one held in Québec in the winter of 2012. The purpose of this workshop was to allow researchers and resource managers working on water quality issues in the Missisquoi watershed to learn about ongoing research projects, to create networking opportunities for increased cross-border collaborative projects, and to discuss additional needs or support for continued research in this region of the Lake Champlain watershed.

    Read the full August 13th, 2013 meeting summary with links to participantscurrent research and recently completed LCBP projects in the Missisquoi Bay watershed.

    Plans and Documents

    What is the State of the Lake?

    What is the
    State of the Lake?

    Learn about the health of Lake Champlain in the 2018 State of the Lake report. Read about trends in key indicators of water quality and ecosystem health. Read the State of the Lake report


    Make Some Waves

    From using lake-friendly cleaning products to volunteering with a local watershed group, you can help restore and protect the Lake Champlain Basin. Find out how you can get involved

    Track Our Progress

    Track Our Progress

    Explore the goals and actions of our partners and track our progress online with the Opportunities for Action website. View Opportunities for Action

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    LCBP is a program partner of
    Lake Champlain Basin Program

    Lake Champlain Basin Program
    54 West Shore Road
    Grand Isle, VT 05458
    800-468-5227 (NY & VT)
    or 802-372-3213